Tag Archives: atherosclerosis

Worried About Future Heart Attack? Check Your LDL Cholesterol Particle Number (LDL-P)

…according to Drs. Thomas Dayspring and James Underberg. I don’t know if these guys are right or not. I bet it’s more complicated than simple LDL particle number.

Even if you eat lots of eggs, most of your cholesterol is made by your liver. That's where statin drugs work.

Even if you eat lots of eggs, most of your cholesterol is made by your liver. That’s where statin drugs work.

Most heart attacks (aka myocardial infarctions) do indeed seem to be caused by acute rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque that’s been present for years. Two key questions are:

  1. What causes the plaque?
  2. Why causes them to rupture?

Underberg and Dayspring write:

The only absolute requirement for plaque development is the presence of cholesterol in the artery: although there are additional heart risk factors like smoking, hypertension, obesity, family history, diabetes, kidney disease, etc., none of those need to be present. Unfortunately, measuring cholesterol in the blood, where it cannot cause plaque, until recently has been the standard of risk-testing. That belief was erroneous and we now have much better biomarkers to use for CV risk-assessment. The graveyard and coronary care units are filled with individuals whose pre-death cholesterol levels were perfect. We now understand that the major way cholesterol gets into the arteries is as a passenger, in protein-enwrapped particles, called lipoproteins.

Particle entry into the artery wall is driven by the amount of particles (particle number) not by how much cholesterol they contain. Coronary heart disease is very often found in those with normal total or LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the presence of a high LDL particle number (LDL-P). By far, the most common underlying condition that increases LDL particle concentration is insulin resistance, or prediabetes, a state where the body actually resists the action of the sugar controlling hormone insulin. This is the most common scenario where patients have significant heart attack risk with perfectly normal cholesterol levels. The good news is that we can easily fix this, sometimes without medication. The key to understanding how comes with the knowledge that the driving forces are dietary carbohydrates, especially fructose and high-fructose corn syrup. In the past, we’ve often been told that elimination of saturated fats from the diet would help solve the problem. That was bad advice. The fact is that until those predisposed to insulin resistance drastically reduce their carbohydrate intake, sudden deaths from coronary heart disease and the exploding diabetes epidemic will continue to prematurely kill those so afflicted.

***

And for goodness’ sake, if you want to live longer, start reducing the amount of dietary carbohydrates, including bread, potatoes, rice, soda and sweetened beverages (including fruit juices), cereal, candy – the list is large).

Underberg and Dayspring don’t mention don’t mention LDL particle size, such as small/dense and large/fluffy; the former are thought by many to be much more highly atherogenic. Is that outdated?

Whoever figures out the immediate cause of plaque rupture and how to reliably prevent it will win a Nobel Prize in Medicine.

Read the whole enchilada.

Steve Parker, M.D.

About Dayspring and Underberg:

Thomas Dayspring MD, FACP, FNLA   Director of Cardiovascular Education, The Foundation for Health Improvement and Technology, Richmond, VA. Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School.

James Underberg MD, FACP, FNLA   Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of General Internal Medicine at NYU Medical School and the NYU Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention . Director of the Bellevue Hospital Primary Care Lipid Management Clinic.

h/t Dr. Axel Sigurdsson

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Filed under coronary heart disease, Heart Disease, Uncategorized

Are Dietary Saturated Fats Dangerous?

This is an epic post from my old Advanced Mediterranean Diet blog, originally dated July 6, 2009. That was a watershed year for me because of the ideas in this article.  If you or your doctor think low-carb eating is dangerous because it may be higher in saturated fat, this post should convince you otherwise.

I’ve been thinking a lot lately about saturated fats. Weird, huh?

No saturated fat in grapes

The American Heart Association recommends that Americans limit the amount of saturated fats they eat to less than 7 percent of total daily calories. If you eat 2,000 calories a day, no more than 140 of them should come from saturated fats. That’s about 16 grams of saturated fats.

In over two decades of clinical practice, I’ve never run across a patient willing to do that calculation. Not many physicians could tell you the “seven percent rule.”

One of the two major themes of Gary Taubes’ book, Good Calories, Bad Calories, is that dietary saturated fats are not particularly harmful to our health, if at all. From what I’ve been taught, this is sacrilegious. “Saturated fats are a major cause of heart disease and strokes,” I’ve heard and read over and over. In brief, this is the Diet-Heart Hypothesis or the “lipid hypothesis”: Dietary saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol are directly related to coronary heart disease and other forms of atherosclerosis (aka hardening of the arteries).

In his review of Taubes’ book, Dr. George Bray didn’t even address Taubes’ point about saturated fats, writing instead, “read and decide for yourself.”

That started me thinking either that the Diet-Heart Hypothesis is indefensible or that Dr. Bray is lazy. I don’t think he’s lazy. Dr. Bray is a Grand High Pooh-Bah in the fields of obesity and nutrition.

The American Heart Association in 1957 recommended that polyunsaturated fats replace saturated fats.

U.S. public health recommendations in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to 30% of total calories to lower the risk of coronary heart disease. Slowly, some fats were replaced mostly with carbohydrates, highly refined ones at that. This shift tends to raise triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol levels, which may themselves contribute to atherosclerosis. Current recommendations are, essentially, to keep saturated fatty acids as low as possible.

One concern about substituting carbohydrates for fats is that blood sugar levels rise, leading to insulin release from the pancreas, in turn promoting growth of fat tissue and potentially leading to weight gain. Some believe that the public health recommendation to reduce total fat (which led to higher carbohydrate intake) is the reason for the dramatic rise in overweight and diabetes we’ve seen over the last 30 years.

Note that if intake of saturated fats is inadequate, our bodies can make the saturated fats it needs from carbohydrates. These are generally the same saturated fats that are present in dietary fats of animal origin. The only exceptions are the two essential fatty acids: alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid.

Why would saturated fats be harmful? Apparently because they raise blood levels of cholesterol (including LDL cholesterol – “bad cholesterol”), which is thought to be a cause of atherosclerosis, which increases the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. I don’t recall seeing any mention of a direct toxic effect of saturated fats (or fatty acids) on arterial walls, where the rubber meets the road. (Saturated fats are broken down in the small intestine to glycerol and fatty acids.)

Dietary saturated fats also raise HDL cholesterol – “good cholesterol” – although not to the degree they raise LDL.

You needed a break

Let’s not forget many other factors that cause, contribute to, or predict coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis: smoking, family history, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, oxidative stress, homocysteine level, systemic inflammation, high-glycemic index diets, C-reactive protein, lack of exercise, and others. I discussed dietary factorsin my April 14, 2009, blog post.

Often overlooked in discussion of dietary fat effects is the great variability of response to fats among individuals. Response can depend on genetics, sex, fitness level, overweight or not, types of carbohydrates eaten, amount of total dietary fat, etc. And not all saturated fats affect cholesterol levels.

Many of the journal articles listed as references below support the idea that the link between dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease is not strong, and may be nonexistent. Read them and you’ll find that:

  • Some studies show no association between dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease.
  • Some studies associate lower rates of coronary heart disease with higher saturated fat intake.
  • Higher saturated fat intake was associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women.
  • Lowering saturated fat intake did not reduce total or coronary heart disease mortality.

“Read and decide for yourself,” indeed. I think you’ll begin to question the reigning dogma.

For example, here’s a conclusion from the Hooper article (from 2001):

In this review we have tried to separate out whether changes in individual fatty acid fractions are responsible for any benefits to health (using the technique of meta-regression). The answers are not definitive, the data being too sparse to be convincing. We are left with a suggestion that less total fat or less of any individual fatty acid fraction in the diet is beneficial.

And a conclusion of the J.B. German article:

At this time [2004], research on how specific saturated fatty acids contribute to coronary artery disease and on the role each specific saturated fatty acid play in other health outcomes is not sufficient to make global recommendations for all persons to remove saturated fats from their diet. No randomized clinical trials of low-fat diets or low-saturated fat diets of sufficient duration have been carried out; thus, there is a lack of knowledge of how low saturated fat intake can be without the risk of potentially deleterious health outcomes.

Zarraga and Schwartz (2006) conclude:

Numerous studies have been conducted to help provide dietary recommendations for optimal cardiovascular health. The most compelling data appear to come from trials that tested diets rich in fruits, vegetables, MUFAs [monounsaturated fatty acids], and PUFAs [polyunsaturated fatty acids], particularly the n-3 PUFAs. In addition, some degree of balance among various food groups appears to be a more sustainable behavioral practice than extreme restriction of a particular food group.

Here’s another of my favorite quotes on this topic, from the J.B. German article:

If saturated fatty acids were of no value or were harmful to humans, evolution would probably not have established within the mammary gland the means to produce saturated fatty acids . . . that provide a source of nourishment to ensure the growth , development, and survival of mammalian offspring.

Take-Home Points

The connection between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease is weak.

I may be excommunicated from the medical community for uttering this. You won’t hear it from most physicians or dietitians. They don’t have time to spend 80 hours on this topic, so they stick with the party line. And maybe I’m wrong anyway.

The scientific community is slowly moving away from the original Diet-Heart/Lipid Hypothesis. It is being replaced with stronger anti-atherosclerosis theories that promote:

  • fruit and vegetable intake
  • whole grain intake
  • low-glycemic index eating
  • increased consumption of plant oils and fish
  • moderate intake of nuts
  • ? moderate intake of low-fat diary (e.g., DASH diet) (less consensus on this point)

So, saturated fats and dietary cholesterol are being crowded out of the picture, or ignored. In many cases, saturated fats have literally been replaced by poly- and monounsaturated fats (plant oils). Several clinical studies indicate that’s a healthy change, but it may be related more to the healthfulness of the plant oils than to detrimental effects of saturated fats.

The original Diet-Heart Hypothesis won’t die until the American Heart Association and U.S. public health agencies put a gun to its head and pull the trigger. That will take another 10 years or more.

If you want to hedge your bets, go ahead and limit your saturated fat intake. It probably won’t hurt you. It might help a wee bit. By the same token, I’m not going on an all-meat and cheese, ultra-high-saturated fat diet; I don’t want to miss out on the healthy effects of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, nuts, and low-glycemic index carbohydrates. Some would throw red wine into the mix. This “prudent diet” reflects what I hereby christen The 21st Century Diet-Heart Hypothesis.

If you’re worried about coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, spend less time counting saturated fat grams, and more time on other risk-reducing factors: diet modification as above, get regular exercise, control your blood pressure, achieve a healthy weight, and don’t smoke. More bang for the buck.

What do you think?

Steve Parker, M.D.

Disclaimer: All matters regarding your health require supervision by a personal physician or other appropriate health professional familiar with your current health status. Always consult your personal physician before making any dietary or exercise changes.

Selected References Contradicting or Questioning the Diet-Heart Hypothesis (updated February 19, 2012):

Astrup, A., et al (including Ronald Krause, Frank Hu, and Walter Willett). The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93 (2011): 684-688. (The authors believe that replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (but not carbohydrates) can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). For the last four decades, low-fat diets replaced fat with carbohydates. So they believe saturated fatty acids cause CHD or polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent it. I see no mention of total fat intake in this article written by major names in nutritional epidemiology and lipid metabolism. “In countries following a Western diet, replacing 1% of energy intake from saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with a 2–3% reduction in the incidence of CHD.” “Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total saturated fatty acids because individual saturated fatty acids may have different cardiovascular effects and major saturated fatty acid food sources contain other constituents that could influence coronary heart disease risk.”) A Feb. 19, 2012, press release from the Harvard School of Public Health covered much of the same ground. It’s titled “Time to Stop Talking About Low-Fat, say HSPH Nutrition Experts.”

Siri-Tarino, Patty, et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 13, 2010. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

Skeaff, C. Murray and Miller, Jody. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: Summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomised controlled trials. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 55 (2009): 173-201.

Halton, Thomas, et al. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 355 (2006): 1,991-2,002.

German, J. Bruce, and Dillard, Cora J. Saturated fats: What dietary intake? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80 (2004): 550-559.

Ravnskov, U. The questionable role of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51 (1998): 443-460.

Ravsnskov, U. Hypothesis out-of-date. The diet-heart idea. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55 (2002): 1,057-1,063.

Ravnskov, U, et al. Studies of dietary fat and heart disease. Science, 295 (2002): 1,464-1,465.

Taubes, G. The soft science of dietary fat. Science, 291 (2001): 2535-2541.

Zarraga, Ignatius, and Schwartz, Ernst. Impact of dietary patterns and interventions on cardiovascular health. Circulation, 114 (2006): 961-973.

Mente, Andrew, et al. A Systematic Review of the Evidence Supporting a Causal Link Between Dietary Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169 (2009): 659-669.

Parikh, Parin, et al. Diets and cardiovascular disease: an evidence-based assessment. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45 (2005): 1,379-1,387.

Bray, G.A. Review of Good Calories, Bad Calories. Obesity Reviews, 9 (2008): 251-263. Reproduced at the Protein Power website of Drs. Michael and Mary Dan Eades.

Hooper, L., et al. Dietary fat intake and prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 322 (2001): 757-763.

Weinberg, W.C. The Diet-Heart Hypothesis: a critique. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 43 (2004): 731-733.

Mozaffarian, Darius, et al. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80 (2004): 1,175-1,184.

Related editorial: Knopp, Robert and Retzlaff, Barbara. Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? An American paradox. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80 (2004): 1.102-1.103.

Yusuf, S., et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet, 364 (2004): 937-952. (ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was a risk factor for heart attack, so dietary saturated fat may play a role if it affects this ratio.)

Hu, Frank. Diet and cardiovascular disease prevention: The need for a paradigm shift. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 50 (2007): 22-24. (Dr. Hu de-emphasizes the original diet-heart hypothesis, noting instead that “. . . reducing dietary GL [glycemic load] should be made a top public health priority.:)

Oh, K., et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the Nurses’ Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161 (2005): 672-679.

Parker, Steve. Time to abandon the diet-heart hypothesis? Advanced Mediterranean Diet Blog, May 1, 2009.

Parker, Steve. New study confirms the heart-healthy Mediterranean diet. Advanced Mediterranean Diet Blog, April 14, 2009. (Examination of the Mente study listed above.)

Selected References Supporting the Diet-Heart Hypothesis (by no means exhaustive)

Ascherio, A. Epidemiologic studies on dietary fats and coronary heart disease. American Journal of Medicine, 113 (supplement) (2002): 9S-12S.

Griel, Amy and Kris-Etherton, Penny. Beyond saturated fat: The importance of the dietary fatty acid profile on cardiovascular disease. Nutrition Reviews, 64 (2006): 257-262. (Primarily a response to the Mozaffarian article above.)

Erkkila, Arja, et al. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: An epidemiological approach. Progress in Lipid Research, 47 (2008): 172-187.

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Insulin Resistance, Lipotoxicity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Atherosclerosis

This will bore most readers.

I just want to mention a scientific review article from 2009 that reviews insulin activity (down to a molecular level) in the context of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance.  Towards the end it starts sounding like an informercial for thiazolidinedione drugs

The author makes a great case for the dangers of hyperinsulinemia.

Good reference overall.

R. A. DeFronzo wrote “Insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis: the missing links. The Claude Bernard Lecture 2009.”   Diabetologia, 2010 (53); 1,270-1,287.  doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1684-1

Steve Parker, M.D.

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Filed under Causes of Diabetes, coronary heart disease

Research Round-Up

 

I have a stack of scientific articles I’ve been meaning to review in depth and blog about.  But I have to finally admit I don’t have the time.  Here they are.  Click through for details.

  1. Long-term calorie restriction in humans appears highly effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk factors (lab tests) and actual carotid artery atherosclerosis. Only 18 study subjects, however.
  2. A very-low-carbohydrate diet improved memory in older adults with mild cognitive impairment over six weeks.  Twenty-three subjects were randomized to either high-carb or very-low-carbohydrate diet.  The low-carbers improved verbal memory performance, lost weight, reduced fasting blood sugar and fasting insulin levels.  Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance.
  3. A high-fat diet impairs cognitive function and heart energy metabolism in young men.  Sixteen test subjects.  Crossover study design with a five-day high-fat diet deriving 75% of energy from fat, compared to a low-fat diet deriving 23% of energy from fat.  High-fat diet led to impaired attention, speed, and mood.  I’m sure low-carb bloggers have been all over this.  At first blush, it appears they were testing during “induction flu” phase of very-low-carb eating, between days 2 to 7 of a new ketogenic diet.  It takes several weeks to adapt metabolism to running almost entirely on fat rather than standard carbohydrates.  Suspect results would have been different if given time to adapt.
  4. Weight-loss with the laparoscopic gastric banding procedure has poor long-term outcome, according to Belgian surgeons reporting on 82 patients.  Four in 10 patients had major complications.  Nearly half of the 82 patients needed to have the bands removed, and six of every 10 required some kind of re-operation.
  5. Trust me, you DON’T want age-related macular degeneration.  Women, reduce your risk of ARMD with a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, avoidance of smoking,  and by eating abundant plant foods (vegetables [including orange and dark leafy green ones], fruits, and whole grains) and limit foods high in fat, refined starches, sugar, alcohol, and oils.  At least according to these researchers. 
  6. Leafy green vegetables and olive oil are linked to reduced heart disease (CHD) in Italian women.  Fruit consumption had no effect.  This is from a subset of the huge EPIC study, following 30,000 women over almost eight years.
  7. The Mediterranean diet protects against metabolic syndrome, reducing risk by about a third according to a huge meta-analysis from Greek and Italian investigators.  It works best in Mediterranean countries. 
  8. The Mediterranean diet was linked to slower rates of cognitive decline in Chicago residents over the course of almost eight years.  The comparison diet was the Healthy Eating Index-2005.  Of the 3,800 participants, about two-thirds were black.  A Manhattan population showed lower risk of dementia when eating Mediterranean-style.

There ya’ go.  This is better than letting the articles just sit in my briefcase for months on end, eventually to be thrown out.

Steve Parker, M.D.

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Egyptian Mummies with Atherosclerosis in the News Again

Remember about a year ago the report that hardening-of-the-arteries was found in Egyptian mummies?  The heart arteries were  also involved.  Princess Ahmose-Meryet-Amon is officially the first person in history diagnosed with coronary heart disease. 

This finding is noteworthy in view of the common view that atherosclerosis is a disease of modern civilization (usually referring to the last one or two hundred years).

You’ll find more details at this May 17 post at CardioBrief

We’ll know more if these researchers ever publish their findings in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Steve Parker, M.D.

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Asian Strokes Are Not Same as Western

The higher the consumption of saturated fat, the lower the risk of death from stroke, according to Japanese researchers in a recent American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Most physicians in the West would have predicted the opposite: saturated fats increase your risk of stroke.  Western physicians tend to think most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the same process, atherosclerosis, and would be aggravated by saturated fat consumption.  We’re learning that ain’t necessarily so.

Most strokes in the Western world are thought to be linked to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) of relatively large arteries. In Japan, most strokes not caused by bleeding in the head are actually lacunar infarctions involving small arteries in the brain, not necessarily involving atherosclerosis

Another major difference between East and West is that saturated fat consumption in Japan is far lower than in the West.

Are you confused yet?

It seems to me that comparing strokes in Japan versus the West is comparing apples to oranges.  The take-away point to me is that we have to be quite wary of generalizing the research results applicable to one culture or ethnic group, to others.

By the way, stroke had been the third leading cause of death in the U.S. for the last 50 years.  It was recently demoted to fourth place by chronic lower respiratory disease.  The traditional Mediterranean diet is one way to reduce your risk of stroke, and the DASH diet works for women.  Keeping your blood pressure under 140/90 is another.  And don’t smoke.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Reference:  Yamagishi, Kazumasa, et al.  Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Study.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, August 4, 2010.  doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29146

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Saturated Fat is Bad – If You’re a Mouse!

I was excited to see an article, “A Look at the Low-Carbohydrate Diet,” in the December 3, 2009, New England Journal of Medicine.  I was quickly disappointed.

Expecting a scholarly review of low-carb eating in humans, I found an exposition of a diet study in mice.  And not just your garden-variety mice.  These were a lab strain deficient in apolipoprotein E, which makes them particularly susceptible to atherosclerosis when fed a “Western” high-fat, moderate-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet instead of standard lab chow.

Click on the HeartWire reference below for a discussion of the original mouse research.  I wrote a short post about it in August, 2009.

The article author, Dr. Steven R. Smith, states the usual concern that high-fat (especially saturated fat), high-protein, low-carb diets may cause cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).  He doesn’t mention the scientific evidence showing little or no role of total and saturated fat in cardiovascular disease.

I give credit to him for mentioning that high-fat low-carb diets area associated with improvement in several cardiovascular risk factors such as HDL cholesterol and blood pressure.  He thought they also improve ( lower) LDL cholesterol levels—not something I’ve been impressed with.  He didn’t mention the lowering of triglycerides so often seen. 

Dr. Smith explains that, compared with controls, mice eating the Western high-fat low-carb diet demonstrated progression of atherosclerosis, perhaps mediated by elevated nonesterified fatty acids and low numbers of endothelial progenitor cells.  These are not yet considered classic cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

To quote Dr. Smith, his main point is that . . .

The work of Foo et al suggests that the [high-fat low-carb] diet might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease through mechanisms that have nothing to do with these “usual suspects” [e.g., LDL and HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, C-reactive protein] and so provides a note of caution against reliance on the traditional cardiovascular risk factors as a gauge of safety.

He rightfully calls for investigation of these issues in humans, but . . .

In the meantime, the ageless advice applies to the consumer of the [high-fat low-carb] diet and other fad diets: caveat emptor.

Take Home Points

I agree that human studies are needed.

As the evidence in favor of the safety and efficacy of high-fat low-carb diets increases, the reigning medical establishment is looking for new ways to discredit them.  This attempt is pathetic.

Unfortunately, the typical physician reading NEJM will skim this article and conclude, “Yeah, I was right—the Atkins diet causes heart disease.  Low-fat high-carb is still the best.” 

If you have beloved pet mice that are deficient in apolipoprotein E, don’t feed them a high-fat low-carb diet.

Steve Parker, M.D.

References:

Smith, Steven R.  A Look at the Low-Carbohydrate Diet.  New England Journal of Medicine, 361 (2009): 2,286-2,288.  [This may cost you $10 USD.]

Foo, S.Y., et al.  Vascular effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein dietProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (2009): 15418-15423.   doi: 10.1073/pnas.0970995106  [This may cost you $10 USD.]

Busko, Marlene.  Atherosclerosis heightened in mice fed low-carb, high-protein diet.  HeartWire, August 26, 2009.  [Free]

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