Jardiance is a diabetes drug in the class called SGLT2 inhibitors.
How do they work? Our kidneys filter glucose (sugar) out of our bloodstream, then reabsorb that glucose back into the bloodstream. SGLT2 inhibitors impair that reabsorption process, allowing some glucose to be excreted in our urine. You could call it a diuretic effect. For example, an SGLT 2 inhibitor called dapagliflozin, at a dose of 10 mg/day, causes the urinary loss of 70 grams of glucose daily.
How drugs like this could prevent cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetics is a mystery to me.
“The diabetes drug empagliflozin (Jardiance) may be marketed for prevention of cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and co-existing cardiovascular disease, the FDA said Friday.
It’s the first such claim ever allowed for a diabetes drug.
Empagliflozin, first approved in 2014, is an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) pathway, reducing blood glucose by causing it to be excreted in urine.Its benefit for cardiovascular risk reduction was demonstrated in the so-called EMPA-REG trial, results of which were reported in 2015.”
Source: Jardiance Wins CV Prevention Indication | Medpage Today
Adult life is a battle against gravity. Eventually we all lose.
“Death rates from both of these cancers [breast in women, colon in men] were about half as high at an altitude of greater than 1000 meters (3300 feet). The study also found about a 30% reduction in deaths from coronary artery disease at >1000 meters.
This accords well with a number of other studies. For example, “Lower Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke at Higher Altitudes in Switzerland“. This study found 22% less heart disease death for every +1000 meters in altitude, and 12% less stroke death.
“Association Between Alzheimer Dementia Mortality Rate and Altitude in California Counties“: This study found about half the death rate from Alzheimer’s at an altitude of 1600 meters vs that at sea level.
There’s less diabetes at high altitude.”
Source: Higher Altitude Means Much Lower Death Rates – Rogue Health and Fitness
This tower is in Pisa, Italy
This won’t surprise you if you’ve been reading this blog for a while:
“Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, killing around 610,000 people annually. Heart attack affects around 735,000 Americans each year, while around 800,000 people are affected by stroke.
Adopting a healthy diet is considered key for reducing the risk of CVD, and numerous studies have suggested the Mediterranean diet fits the bill.
A study published in the European Heart Journal earlier this year, for example, found older adults who adhered to the Mediterranean diet were at lower risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death than those who followed a Western diet.”
Source: Mediterranean diet linked to reduced risk of CVD – Medical News Today
That’s a dumbbell in her right hand. I work-out with those myself.
I don’t have access to the full scientific report, but I’ve posted part of the abstract below.
The biggest problem with the study at hand is that physical activity apparently was surveyed only at the start of this 14-year study. Results would be much more robust if activity was surveyed every year or two. My overall activity level seems to change every two or three years. How about you?
“Compared to women who reported no strength training, women engaging in any strength training experienced a reduced rate of type 2 diabetes of 30% when controlling for time spent in other activities and other confounders. A risk reduction of 17% was observed for cardiovascular disease among women engaging in strength training. Participation in both strength training and aerobic activity was associated with additional risk reductions for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared to participation in aerobic activity only.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the inclusion of muscle-strengthening exercises in physical activity regimens for reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, independent of aerobic exercise. Further research is needed to determine the optimum dose and intensity of muscle-strengthening exercises.”
Source: Strength Training and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. – PubMed – NCBI
Steve Parker, M.D.
PS: Cardiovascular disease includes heart attack, cardiac death, stroke, coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting.
…according to this article at American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
This is quite contrary to the party line spread by public health authorities for the last 40 years.
Enjoy your eggs! (If you can afford them.)
Steve Parker, M.D.
Even if you eat lots of eggs, most of your cholesterol is made by your liver. That’s where statin drugs work.
See Larry Husten’s article for MedPageToday”
“Newly uncovered documents reveal that 50 years ago the sugar industry gave secret support to prominent Harvard researchers to write an influential series of articles in the New England Journal of Medicine that downplayed the negative effects of sugar.Instead, the articles shifted the blame from sugar to fat as the “dietary culprit” behind heart disease.
In recent years there has been growing awareness that decades of dietary policy demonized fat and ignored or played down the dangers of increased consumption of carbohydrates and sugars. Many believe this policy had a significant adverse effect on public health, contributing to the obesity and diabetes epidemics.”
Source: How Sweet: Sugar Industry Made Fat the Villain | Medpage Today
Remember that sugar doesn’t always refer to just table sugar. Starches -as in bread, potatoes, and peas – are easily and quickly broken down by the body into simple sugars.
Your friendly neighborhood drug supplier
I bet many of my readers are taking statin drugs to lower their cholesterol levels. Drugs like Lipitor, Mevacor, Crestor, and Leschol.
Adverse muscle effects—aching, easy fatigue, and weakness—are relatively common in statin users. After stopping the offending drug, it may take several weeks or up to a month for the muscle effects to resolve.
A recent study found that metabolic syndrome patients are more likely to suffer bothersome muscle effects from statins, compared to the general population. Search this site for the five components of metabolic syndrome. For our purposes, only three components are linked to statin-related muscle effects: high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and excess body weight.
From the study at hand:
“Muscle symptoms, primarily pain or weakness, are reported commonly with statin use in clinical practice and may result in changes in, or discontinuation of, statin treatment.1 The high frequency of muscle symptoms with clinical use of statin was highlighted by the results from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Education (USAGE) study, an Internet-based survey of 10,138 adult US subjects who had been prescribed statins.2 Fully 29% of study participants reported new or worsening muscle symptoms while taking a statin.”
Source: Metabolic syndrome is associated with muscle symptoms among statin users – Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Steve Parker, M.D.