Category Archives: Causes of Diabetes

Sure, Exercise Reduces Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, But How Much Does It Take?

Hop on and ride, ride, ride to prevent diabetes

Hop on and ride, ride, ride to prevent diabetes

Even if you have T2 diabetes already, share this post with someone who has prediabetes or risk of getting diabetes. You could save a life and prevent a lot of hassle.

“A new study, published this week in the journal Diabetologia, takes a deeper look at the role of exercise in the development of type 2 diabetes. It is the most in-depth study to examine exercise independent from other influential factors, such as diet. The conclusions from the report are clear: “This research shows that some physical activity is good, but more is better.” (says study co-author Dr. Soren Brage)

Currently, physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and the United Kingdom recommend 150 minutes of moderate activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week; this could include cycling, walking, or sports. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fewer than 50 percent of American adults meet these recommendations.

The current study was a result of collaborative work between two institutions – University College London and the University of Cambridge, both of which are based in the U.K. Data from more than 1 million people was collated. In all, the team analyzed 23 studies from the U.S., Asia, Australia, and Europe.

***

According to the analysis, cycling or walking briskly for 150 minutes each week cuts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 26 percent.

Those who exercise moderately or vigorously for an hour each day reduced their risk by 40 percent. At the other end of the scale, for those who did not manage to reach the 150 minute target, any amount of physical activity they carried out still reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes, but to a lesser extent.,

Source: Exercise vs. diabetes: New level of detail uncovered – Medical News Today

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: If you want to start an exercise program, my books will get you started.

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Filed under Causes of Diabetes, Exercise

From P.D. Mangan: Higher Altitude Means Much Lower Death Rates

Adult life is a battle against gravity. Eventually we all lose.

Adult life is a battle against gravity. Eventually we all lose.

I quote:

“Death rates from both of these cancers [breast in women, colon in men] were about half as high at an altitude of greater than 1000 meters (3300 feet).  The study also found about a 30% reduction in deaths from coronary artery disease at >1000 meters.

This accords well with a number of other studies. For example, “Lower Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke at Higher Altitudes in Switzerland“. This study found 22% less heart disease death for every +1000 meters in altitude, and 12% less stroke death.

Association Between Alzheimer Dementia Mortality Rate and Altitude in California Counties“: This study found about half the death rate from Alzheimer’s at an altitude of 1600 meters vs that at sea level.

There’s less diabetes at high altitude.”

Source: Higher Altitude Means Much Lower Death Rates – Rogue Health and Fitness

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Filed under cancer, Causes of Diabetes, Dementia, Heart Disease

Strength Training Cuts the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease In Women

That's a dumbbell in her right hand. I work-out with those myself.

That’s a dumbbell in her right hand. I work-out with those myself.

I don’t have access to the full scientific report, but I’ve posted part of the abstract below.

The biggest problem with the study at hand is that physical activity apparently was surveyed only at the start of this 14-year study. Results would be much more robust if activity was surveyed every year or two. My overall activity level seems to change every two or three years. How about you?

Moving on.

“Compared to women who reported no strength training, women engaging in any strength training experienced a reduced rate of type 2 diabetes of 30% when controlling for time spent in other activities and other confounders. A risk reduction of 17% was observed for cardiovascular disease among women engaging in strength training. Participation in both strength training and aerobic activity was associated with additional risk reductions for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared to participation in aerobic activity only.

CONCLUSIONS: These data support the inclusion of muscle-strengthening exercises in physical activity regimens for reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, independent of aerobic exercise. Further research is needed to determine the optimum dose and intensity of muscle-strengthening exercises.”

PMID 27580152

Source: Strength Training and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. – PubMed – NCBI

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: Cardiovascular disease includes heart attack, cardiac death, stroke, coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting.

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Filed under Causes of Diabetes, Exercise, Heart Disease, Stroke

The Heavier Identical Twin Is Twice as Likely to Develop Type 2 Diabetes

The study was done in Sweden and involved 4,000 identical twin pairs. The lighter of the twin pairs had average body mass index of 23.9; the heavier twins averaged 25.9. Note that 25.9 is barely into the overweight range.

Type 2 diabetes definitely tends to “run in families.” If you have a genetic predisposition to it, then get overweight or obese, your risk increases even more.

From the abstract:

“In [identical] twin pairs, higher BMI was not associated with an increased risk of MI or death but was associated with the onset of diabetes. These results may suggest that lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity are more effective in decreasing the risk of diabetes than the risk of cardiovascular disease or death.”

Source: Risks of Myocardial Infarction, Death, and Diabetes in Identical Twin Pairs With Different Body Mass Indexes | JAMA Internal Medicine | JAMA Network

PS: Study results may or may not apply to non-Swedes.

PPS: Calculate your body mass index.

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Night Shift Work Linked to Increased Type 2 Diabetes In Women

Shift work may kill you.

I’ve seen studies associating night shift work with T2 diabetes in Japanese men, higher breast cancer rates, more metabolic syndrome, and higher heart disease risk in men.

Now we have evidence for higher diabetes rates in women who do shift work”

“Our results suggest that an extended period of rotating night shift work is associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, which appears to be partly mediated through body weight. Proper screening and intervention strategies in rotating night shift workers are needed for prevention of diabetes.”

Source: PLOS Medicine: Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women

Action Plan: P.D. Mangan has some ideas.

Also, reduce your risk of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes with the Mediterranean diet.

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Professor Tim Noakes Explains Why He Favors a Low-Carb Diet for Diabetes

Click the link below for details.

Overall, Prof. Noakes makes a lot of sense. I like the concept of diabetes as a disease of carbohydrate intolerance. He may not have everything right. For instance, experts debate whether insulin resistance is a cause or result of type 2 diabetes.

The professor writes:

“My interest in the dietary management of diabetes stems from watching my father’s rapid downward physical decent in the years after he was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); the diagnosis of T2DM in myself; and my reading of the “alternative” literature which convinces me that T2DM does not have to be an inevitably progressive disease:My conclusion is that unlike my father, it is not my pre-ordained fate to die from the final common pathway in fatal T2DM – disseminated obstructive arterial disease. But to achieve that I will have to ignore what I was taught and which, in turn, I have conveyed to two generations of students:So to prevent the development of the disseminated obstructive arterial disease of T2DM, I will have to follow dietary practices that are the polar opposite of those my father was advised to adopt and which hastened his death; advice that I personally practised for 33 years and which ultimately caused me also to develop T2DM.”

Source: The Low Carb Diabetic: NOAKES: DOCTORS, DIETITIANS MAKE DIABETES A THREAT TO LIFE?

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Is Diabetes Caused by Poor Regulation of Glucagon?

From Shutterstock.com

Glucagon is produced in the alpha cells and works to increase blood sugar levels. Insulin is from the beta cells.

Most folks assume that the hormone called insulin is at the heart of diabetes: either there’s not enough of it or it’s not working right.

But thats’s not the only possible mechanism for diabetes. I’ve written several times here about the glucagon-centric theory of diabetes, which is most closely associated with Roger Unger, M.D. If you’re interested in a scientific review article on glucagon and type 2 diabetes, here’s one:

Reference: Xiao C. Li and Jia L. Zhuo. Current Insights and New Perspectives on the Roles of Hyperglucagonemia in Non Insulin-dependent Type 2 DiabetesCurrent Hypertension Reports. Oct 2013; 15(5): 10.1007/s11906-013-0383-y.  doi: 10.1007/s11906-013-0383-y

Steve Parker, M.D.

low-carb mediterranean diet

Front cover of book

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Do Artificial Sweeteners Cause Diabetes and Overweight?

Would aspartame or stevia be healthier than those sugar cubes?

Would aspartame or stevia be healthier than those sugar cubes?

We don’t know with certainty yet. But a recent study suggests that non-caloric artificial sweeteners do indeed cause overweight and type 2 diabetes in at least some folks. The study at hand is very small, so I wouldn’t bet the farm on it. I’m not even changing any of my recommendations at this point.

exercise for weight loss and management, dumbbells

Too many diet sodas?

The proposed mechanism for adverse metallic effects is that the sweeteners alter the mix of germs that live in our intestines. That alteration in turn causes  the overweight and obesity. See MedPageToday for the complicated details. The first part of the article is about mice; humans are at the end.

Some quotes:

“Our results from short- and long-term human non-caloric sweetener consumer cohorts suggest that human individuals feature a personalized response to non-caloric sweeteners, possibly stemming from differences in their microbiota composition and function,” the researchers wrote.

The researchers further suggested that these individualized nutritional responses may be driven by personalized functional differences in the micro biome [intestinal germs or bacteria].

***

Diabetes researcher Robert Rizza, MD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., who was not involved with the research, called the findings “fascinating.”

He noted that earlier research suggests people who eat large amounts of artificial sweeteners have higher incidences of obesity and diabetes. The new research, he said, suggests there may be a causal link.

“This was a very thorough and carefully done study, and I think the message to people who use artificial sweeteners is they need to use them in moderation,” he said. “Drinking 17 diet sodas a day is probably a bad idea, but one or two may be OK.”

I won’t argue with that last sentence!

Finally, be aware the several clinical studies show no linkage between human consumption of non-caloric artificial sweeteners and overweight, obesity, and T2 diabetes.

Steve Parker, M.D.

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Filed under Causes of Diabetes, Overweight and Obesity, Sugar Substitutes

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals May Cause T2 Diabetes and Obesity

See text for mention of pancreatic alpha and beta cells

See text for mention of pancreatic alpha and beta cells

A panel of university-based scientists convened by The Endocrine Society recently reviewed the available literature on health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (aka EDCs). The executive summary is available free online. Some excerpts:

The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information.

*  *  *

Both cellular and animal models demonstrate a role for EDCs in the etiology of obesity and T2D [type 2 diabetes]. For obesity, animal studies show that EDC-induced weight gain depends on the timing of exposure and the age of the animals. Exposures during the perinatal period [the weeks before and after birth] trigger obesity later in life. New results covering a whole range of EDC doses have underscored the importance of nonmonotonic dose-response relationships; some doses induced weight increase, whereas others did not. Furthermore, EDCs elicit obesity by acting directly on white adipose tissue, al- though brain, liver, and even the endocrine pancreas may be direct targets as well.

Regarding T2D, animal studies indicate that some EDCs directly target 􏰁beta and alpha cells in the pancreas, adipocytes, and liver cells and provoke insulin resistance together with hyperinsulinemia. These changes can also be associated with altered levels of adiponectin and leptin— often in the absence of weight gain. This diabetogenic action is also a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and hyperinsulinemia can drive diet-induced obesity. Epide- miological studies in humans also point to an association between EDC exposures and obesity and/or T2D; however, because many epidemiological studies are cross-sectional, with diet as an important confounding factor in humans, it is not yet possible to infer causality.

RTWT.

Bix at Fanatic Cook blog says foods of animal origin are the major source of harmful persistent organic pollutants, some of which act as ECDs.

Keep your eyes and ears open for new research reports on this critically important topic.

Steve Parker, M.D.

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Filed under Causes of Diabetes, Overweight and Obesity

Do Antibiotics Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Denmark researchers found an association between antibiotic usage and later development of type 2 diabetes. I don’t think they’ve released full details of their study yet. Just because there’s a linkage between antibiotics and type 2 diabetes doesn’t mean there is a direct causal relationship.

One possible way that antibiotics could cause diabetes, however, would be through alteration of gut germs (aka microbiome). An antibiotic may do a great job curing your urinary tract infection, while at the same time eliminating millions of certain gut bacteria and allowing other species to have a population explosion. One of the most fascinating fields of medicine now is trying to figure out if and how the billions of bacteria in our intestines might influence health and disease. F’rinstance, gut bacteria may influence whether we are fat or slim.

I bet if you graphed antibiotic use and incidence of type 2 diabetes over the last 50 years, they would trend together pretty well.

Steve Parker, M.D.

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