Skipping Breakfast May Increase Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

“In total 6 studies, based on 96,175 participants and 4935 cases, were included. The summary RR for type 2 diabetes comparing ever with never skipping breakfast was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.46, n = 6 studies) without adjustment for BMI, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.34, n = 4 studies) after adjustment for BMI. Nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that risk of type 2 diabetes increased with every additional day of breakfast skipping, but the curve reached a plateau at 4–5 d/wk, showing an increased risk of 55% (summary RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.71). No further increase in risk of type 2 diabetes was observed after 5 d of breakfast skipping/wk (P for nonlinearity = 0.08).


This meta-analysis provides evidence that breakfast skipping is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and the association is partly mediated by BMI.”

Source: Breakfast Skipping Is Associated with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic

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Diabetes and Prediabetes Linked to Higher Heart Failure Risk

From NMCD:


•A meta-analysis of 77 prospective studies was conducted.

•Diabetes was associated with a 2-fold increase in heart failure risk in the general population.

•Diabetes was associated with a 69% increase in heart failure risk in patient populations.

•Elevated blood glucose even in the pre-diabetic range also increased heart failure risk.

Source: Diabetes mellitus, blood glucose and the risk of heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies – Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases


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Reasons Why It Took SySy So Long to Transition to Very Low Carb Eating

From Sysy Morales at Diabetes Daily:

“My blood sugar levels have never been better than what they are now. This is primarily due to eating a very low-carb diet. It took me a long time to transition, and this post will outline the reasons why.

Over a decade ago I read Dr. Bernstein’s book called, Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution. When he explained what he calls the Laws of Small Numbers, which refers to how small amounts of carbohydrate are covered by small doses of insulin and this means that blood sugars are more easily managed within tight parameters. He also explained why keeping blood sugar levels within tight parameters is essential to avoid complications. This made sense immediately, and I responded by flinging the book across my bedroom at the wall.”

Source: Reasons Why It Took Me So Long to Transition to Very Low Carb

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Long-term Glycemic Control and Dementia Risk in Type 1 Diabetes 

“Among older patients with type 1 diabetes, those with majority exposure to HbA1c 8–8.9% and ≥9% had increased dementia risk, while those with majority exposure to HbA1c 6–6.9% and 7–7.9% had reduced risk. Currently recommended glycemic targets for older patients with type 1 diabetes are consistent with healthy brain aging.”

Source: Long-term Glycemic Control and Dementia Risk in Type 1 Diabetes | Diabetes Care

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Mediterranean Diet Improves Gestational Diabetes Outcomes

“Women with gestational diabetes who were on a Mediterranean diet for 3 months had improved glycemic levels, that were comparable to pregnant women with normal glucose levels, a new study from Madrid, Spain suggests.

The objective of the study was to assess whether Mediterranean diet-based medical nutrition therapy facilitates near-normoglycemia in women with gestational diabetes.

“Medical nutrition therapy based on a MedDiet enhanced with extra virgin olive oil and pistachios, thus with a high-fat content, is associated with glycemic control and with a reduction in gestational diabetes-related adverse perinatal outcomes,” Dr. Alfonso Calle-Pascual, one of the study authors told dLife.”

Source: Mediterranean Diet Linked to Improved Gestational Diabetes Outcomes, Study | dLife

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Random Notes on Indian Cuisine

Chicken Kolhapur from Chennai Chettinaad Palace

From Madhur Jaffrey’s “An Invitation to Indian Cooking,” 1973 (43 years ago)

“Curry” is just a vague, inaccurate word which the world has picked up from the British, who, in turn, got it mistakenly from us.

“Us” being Indians.

If “curry” is an oversimplified name for an ancient cuisine, then “curry powder” attempts to oversimplify (and destroy) the cuisine itself.”

“Try to buy only whole spices and grind them yourself in small quantities.”

  • in coffee grinder
  • better flavor
  • whole spice that the grindings came from lasts longer
  • store in jar with tight lid away from light

“It is the preparation and combination of whole or freshly ground spices which makes Indian foods unique.”

Ghee: two types. See p. 9

Her recipes are adapted for American kitchens and stores. They focus on Delhi and adjacent sections of Uttar Pradesh.

Meat is usually goat. Fairly tough, so it is cooked slowly or tenderized.

80% of India is Hindu, who technically do not eat beef.

Cooking chicken? Usually remove skin first.

A tandoor is a clay oven with a live coal or wood fire.

Tandoori chicken is indeed popular in India.

“Indians never use olive oil,” but she does.

Fruits and veggies in India  (1973) were/are very seasonal. Not eaten out of season.

Coriander (Chinese parsley or cilantro) and green chilies are essential.

Many Indians don’t like or eat hot (spicy) foods.

Most Indians eat a lot of greens: spinach, mustard greens, fenugreek greens, white radish greens, gram (or chick pea) greens. Spinach is popular over all of India.

Potatoes are a staple in North India.

The average Indian (1973) eats 1/2 to 2/3 pound of rice/day [cooked weight, I guess]. Her recipes use Carolilna (a long-grain uncooked rice) or basmati. (I must re-read. Is Carolilna really Carolina?)

Dals = lentils or pulses = varieties of dried beans and peas.

  • daily in most Indian homes
  • always eaten with rice or bread

Various home-made pickles are popular. By no means only made with cucumbers. Even meat can be pickled.

Chutney p. 226-7.

Her childhood family had servants.

Indian breads are called roti.

  • chapati, paratha, porris, naan
  • naan is leavened
  • typically whole wheat flour
  • cooked on a cast iron griddle or clay oven (tandoor)

In India most meals end with fruit.


From “Beyond Curry Indian Cookbook” by Denise D’Silva Sankhé, 2016. Subtitle: A culinary journey through India.

She’s a columnist at Serious Eats (Beyond Curry).

Over 50 languages in India.

“Curry, to most Indians, is only one type of dish, a gravy or sauce-based one, which can have meat or vegetable in it. “In India, there is no one “curry powder.”

Again, many regional differences in flavors and foods.

Grind your own spices. Store them dark and dry, in steel or glass airtight, in fridge maybe.

A masala is just a blend of spices; quite variable.

Nutmeg is poisonous, but use it anyway.

Dal designates more than lentils. Dals  are a staple, served at least a few times/week. Dal-chawal is a simple dish of lentils and rice, and perhaps the most comforting of foods to Indians.

“Indian food is traditionally eaten  by hand.” The right hand. The left is unclean.

“Mise en place” p. 35.

Some religions forbid alliums (e.g., onions and garlic) and root veggies. Substitute asefetida for the alliums.

Desserts and sweet treat are common, especially in religious and other festivals and celebrations.

Shop for pantry essentials and spices at specialty stores: Indian, Asian, Middle Eastern.

Buy spice in small quantities. They don’t store well for long.

Green chilis (sic): lighter-colored, longer ones are less spicy. Shorter, dark green ones are very hot. Thai and serrano chiles (sic) are fine substitutes.

When her recipes call for onion, she means red onion (can substitute white ones).



Search DietDoctor and you will find. Also


From Today’s Dietitian magazine:

August 2014 Issue

Indian Cuisine — Foods That Hold a Special Place in Plant-Based Food Traditions
By Sharon Palmer, RDN
Today’s Dietitian
Vol. 16 No. 8 P. 17

[Ed.: copy/pasted with a few paragraphs deleted. Click the link above for some recipes.]

Gita Patel, MS, RDN, CDE, LD, CLT, author of Blending Science With Spices, explains that Indian culture leans toward vegetarianism due to Hinduism, which hosts a central theme of nonviolence, including animals. “A profound respect for all life is a common Hindu belief that supports vegetarian eating styles,” adds Vandana Sheth, RDN, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

However, British colonial influences and Western food trends, such as the emergence of fast-food restaurants, have brought more animal foods into India, Patel says. “With the globalization of the world and technology, some of the urban lifestyle changes have significantly affected traditional food practices in India,” Sheth adds, listing as evidence the increasing number of fast-food restaurants and premade foods replacing traditional meals in India.

Traditional Eating Patterns
“A lot of people are drawn to Indian cuisine. People like the flavors, herbs, and spices,” Patel says, noting that home cooking is vastly different from what you’re likely to sample in an Indian restaurant.

“The traditional eating pattern is very balanced,” Patel says. She describes typical meals consisting of dal (a legume dish), rice, roti (bread), vegetable, salad, fruit, and a yogurt or buttermilk drink, which may vary slightly depending on the region.

Indeed, there’s scientific consensus that a disease-protective diet is based on a variety of whole plant foods, which sums up the traditional Indian eating pattern. “The traditional Indian vegetarian diet is one that’s rich in a wide variety of grains, beans, lentils, vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, spices, and herbs. Research has found that vegetarians have a lower risk of heart disease and some types of cancer,” Sheth says. The National Cancer Institute reports that cancer rates are lower in India than in Western countries, and that diet characteristics such as a high intake of fruits, vegetables, spices, and tea may be responsible for protecting Indians against certain forms of cancer.2

Key Components
While the specific dishes may vary according to different regions of India, the key ingredients basically are the same and include the following:

• Vegetables: “Vegetables are grown all over the country due to the climate,” Patel says, adding that many vegetables are unique to India, such as specific types of gourds, radishes, beans, and greens. However, other dishes are based on more familiar vegetables, such as beets, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, corn, eggplant, green beans, various greens, okra, onions, peas, peppers, potatoes, radishes, spinach, squash, and tomatoes. In addition, fermented foods such as pickled vegetables are a regular feature in Indian cuisine.

• Grains: Rice and wheat are staples in India and used in flatbreads (eg, dosa, roti, chapati), doughs (eg, samosa, kachori), and side dishes (rice) to accompany meals.

• Legumes: Indian cuisine relies on the regular and flavorful use of legumes, such as black-eyed peas, chickpeas, lentils, and beans. In addition to dal, many legumes are sprouted or used as flour in breads.

• Fruits: Apples, apricots, bananas, figs, grapes, guavas, lychees, loquats, mangoes, oranges, papayas, passion fruit, and sweet limes are common fruits in India.

• Dairy: From milk and buttermilk to yogurt and paneer (fresh cheese), dairy products are regular features of the Indian diet. Patel reports that most Indian households receive fresh milk, which is then used for beverages and cooking. Households make their own ghee (clarified butter) from the milk fat, and leftover milk is made into fresh yogurt every day.

• Vegetable oils: Most oils used in traditional cooking are unrefined vegetable oils, such as peanut or sesame. However, Patel reports an increase in the use of refined oils, such as soybean oil, in modern cooking.

• Herbs and spices: At the heart of Indian food is a long list of culinary herbs and spices that have been used for centuries, many of which are proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. Indian spices include amchur (made from mangoes), aniseed, asafetida (a pungent, onionlike flavor), bay leaf, black pepper, cardamom, chilies, cinnamon, cloves, coconut, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, garam masala (a spice blend), garlic, ginger, mango powder, mint, mustard, nutmeg, onion seeds, parsley, pomegranate seeds, poppy seeds, saffron, sesame seeds, tamarind, and turmeric.

— Sharon Palmer, RDN, is a contributing editor to Today’s Dietitian and the author of The Plant-Powered Diet and Plant-Powered for Life.





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Modified Mediterranean Diet Fights Depression


Olive oil is a prominent source of fat in the Mediterranean diet

From Dr. Emily Deans at Psychology Today:

This year, finally, we have the SMILES trial, the very first dietary trial to look specifically at a dietary treatment in a depressed population in a mental health setting. Participants met criteria for depression and many were already being treated with standard therapy, meds, or both. The designers of this trial took the preponderance of observational and controlled data we already have for general and mental health and decided to train people using dietary advice, nutritional counseling, and motivational interviewing directed at eating a “modified Mediterranean diet” that combined the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Guidelines for Adults in Greece. They recommended eating whole grains, vegetables, fruit, legumes, unsweetened dairy, raw nuts, fish, chicken, eggs, red meat (up to three servings per week), and olive oil. Everyone in the study met criteria for a depressive disorder.

The experimental arm of subjects were instructed to reduce the intake of sweets, refined cereals, fried food, fast food, processed meat, sugary drinks, and any alcohol beyond 1-2 glasses of wine with meals. There were seven hour long nutritional counseling sessions and a sample “food hamper” with some food and recipes. The control group had the same number of sessions in “social support,” which is a type of supportive therapy that is meant to mimic the time and interpersonal engagement of the experimental group without utilizing psychotherapeutic techniques.

*  *  *

Despite the small size, the results were still statistically significant and better than anticipated. The dietary group had bigger reductions in depression scores at the end of 12 weeks. Remission of depression symptoms occurred in 32.3 percent of the diet group as opposed to 8 percent of the control group.

Source: A Dietary Treatment for Depression | Psychology Today

The Mediterranean diet…Is there anything it can’t do?

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