The American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association just published a review paper on nonnutritive sweeteners, also known as low-calorie sweeteners, artificial sweeteners, noncaloric sweeteners, and intense sweeteners. I quote from the conclusion section:
At this time, there are insufficient data to determine conclusively whether the use of NNS to displace caloric sweeteners in beverages and foods reduces added sugars or carbohydrate intakes, or benefits appetite, energy balance, body weight, or cardiometabolic risk factors.
With regard to nonnutritive sweeteners and glycemic response [in diabetics], 4 randomized trials that varied from 1 to 16 weeks in duration found no significant difference between the effects of nonnutritive sweeteners and various comparisons (sucrose, starch, or placebo) on standard measures of glycemic response (i.e., plasma glucose and insulin, HbA1c, C-peptide) and, in general, did not detect clinically relevant effects.
You’re welcome to read the entire document.